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Recommendations for loading and washing

After filling in the filter media it is necessary to make layers backwashing to remove small fractions (lower sift) and dust particles out of filtering layer.

This operation is especially important in the formation of two-layer filter media, as a blocking layer of small fractions may be formed between the upper and lower layers, which deteriorates the hydraulic characteristics of the filter.

In the case of two-, three-layer media the following operations are performed for each layer. The «AQUALAT» filter anthracite provides filtration rate of at least 10min/hour.

Water-air washing technology is as follows:

  • Filling in the «AQUALAT» filtrate.
  • Storage of it in the water for 24 hours.
  • Water backwash with the intensity at 5-10 m / h below the optimum for 10 minutes (at least) to full transparency of water.
  • Decrease in water level.
  • Air backwash for 5 minutes
  • Water backwash with optimum intensity to full transparency of water.
  • Tapping the filter to remove the top layer of 1-2 cm.

Recommended intensity of backwashing flushings:

  • at 0.5-1.2 grits — about 30 m / h;
  • at 0.8-2.0 grits — about 50 m / h.

The main stages of backwashing are as follows:

  • Backwash with water for 5 minutes.
  • Reducing the water level in the 50-100 mm below the upper surface of the media.
  • Air backwash for 3-5 minutes.
  • Water backwash for 3-5 minutes.
  • Clear the first portions of filtrate.

The technology of backwashing provides separate air and water backwashing, firstly to avoid carrying over the «AQUALAT» filter media, loaded into the filter, and secondly, to improve the efficiency of the operation, as during air backwashing with decreased water cushion the intensity of grinding of accumulated suspended matter, as well as calcium carbonate, clinging to grains in lime water during filtration. The intensity of fouling grain media with carbonates depends not only on the stability of lime water, determined with the mode of clarifiers, but also on the absorption carbon dioxide air with lime water.

Systematic air backwashing of filter media allows to remove calcium carbonate from a mechanical filter.

Technology of water pre-wash is as follows:

  • Filling in the «AQUALAT» filtrate
  • Storage in the water for 24 hours (soaking)
  • • Water backwash with the intensity of 4-6 l / sec∙m² for 10-15 minutes.
  • Storage in water within 12 hours.
  • Backwash with water, the intensity of 6-8 l / sec∙m² for 10-15 minutes.
  • Storage in the water is within 12 hours.
  • Final rinse of the filter with the intensity of 10-16 l / sec∙m² (depending on the fractional composition of the load) to full transparency of water (can be repeated several times).

Technology of water wash in the operation of fast filter without supporting layers with the«AQUALAT» filter loading is the following:

  • Supplying the filter with clarified water stops.
  • The filter works to the surface loading.
  • After that of valve gate lockes and opens and derivation of drainage of washing water filter.
  • Then valve of supply of washing water to the filter opens.
  • Washing the filter for 5-7 minutes.
  • The valve of washing water supply to the filter closes and removal of washing water filter is made.
  • The clarified water supply to the filter opens and valve gate of filtrate removal (its position is adjusted so that the water level in the filter is higher than the edge of the gutter by 2-5 cm during the filter cycle).

The recommended intensity of flushing:

  • grain size 0.5-1.2-10-12 l / sec∙m²;
  • grain size 0.6-1.8-12-14 l / sec∙m²;
  • grain size 0.8-2.0-14-16 l / sec∙m².

Operating data and monitoring chemical analysis show that if properly organized exploitation of the «AQUALAT» filter media, filled into the mechanical filters, the quality of treated water that meets the requirements of scientific and technical documentation and manufacturers of ion exchangers: suspended particles less than 1 mg / kg, iron less than 100mg/kg, aluminum less than 100mg/kg is provided.

At the same time the content of iron, aluminum and suspended solids decrease by 2-3 times and of organic substances by 20-25% in treated water compared with water after chlorating agent.

According to the SR&N 2.04.02-84 «Water Supply. External networks and facilities as the top layer of two-layer rapid anthracite filters the application of anthracite media for cleaning of domestic, drinking and waste waters is recommended. Practice shows that due to this the productivity of station increases by 20-25% by means of increased rates of filtering water and contaminant capacity. By reducing the costs on washing, less head losses, etc. economic performance is improved.